Warsaw exhibition
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I was born in Kovno on October 25, 1929. I had three brothers and one sister. My father was self-employed and my mother was a housewife.

I attended Jewish Elementary School #7 in Kovno.

In 1941, with the outbreak of World War II, we were taken to the Kovno ghetto, where we remained until 1944. Afterwards we were transferred to various camps – Dachau, Landsberg, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Mauthausen, Gunskirchen – until 1945. We were a group of 131 boys.

After the war ended in 1945, I returned to Kovno. I learned that my father and two brothers had been murdered by the Germans. My mother, older brother, sister and I remained alive, and we met in Vilna.

I finished high school and was drafted into the Red Army. I was discharged three and a half years later and returned to Vilna.

I married Sarah Leper in 1955, and we had two children, Dov and Mira. We immigrated to Israel in 1969.

At present I live in Bat Yam.
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